Physical methods (ionizing radiation, electric field, ultrasound, external force, etc.) also exert great influences on sEV secretion. For example, it was found that the sEV secretion by cancer cells increased significantly after radiotherapy . Studies have demonstrated that exposure to ionizing radiation caused DNA damage in cells and the p53 transcription factor activated by DNA damage stimulated the expression of transmembrane protein tumor suppressor activator 6, which activated additional pathways for sEV biogenesis and release . Ionizing radiation on cells could also cause changes on exosomal compositions. It has been found that B7-H3 (CD276), EIFs, Rabs, CTGF mRNA increased in sEVs derived from different kinds of cancer cells affected by different dose and duration of ionizing radiation . In addition, the effects of ionizing radiation can cause different biological function changes on sEVs. On one hand, the effects of ionizing radiation on sEV biological function could promote the migration of recipient cancer cells . On the other hand, the communication between irradiated and unirradiated surrounding cancer cells mediated by sEVs gave rise to bystander effect, causing the unirradiated recipient cancer cells to be injured, like those irradiated cancer cells . If further study can uncover the mechanism behind the sEV-mediated injury of unirradiated surrounding cancer cells, engineered sEVs derived from irradiated cancer cells in vitro have great application potential for cancer therapy.
Things tend to get a bit more complicated if you're booked on separate tickets or your bags aren't checked through. In this case, you will need to clear immigration and pick up your bags before going to landside departures. Once you've got your bags, go to the arrivals halls where you'll find signs towards departures.
The journey between arrivals and departures is a swift one, however, you'll still need to account for the time required to clear immigration, customs, and other formalities. I'd recommend setting aside at least 3 hours, if not more, to ensure you reach your next flight just in time. 1e1e36bf2d